Almost everyone has heard of partitioning and logical replication in PostgreSQL 10. Have you heard about the support of ICU collations (International Components for Unicode)?
This article will present what this new feature is but also the possible gains by exploiting abbreviated keys.
Table of Contents
Short reminder about collation
In database, collation corresponds to character classification rules.
Here are some examples:
create table t1 (c1 text); insert into t1 values ('cote'),('coté'),('côte'),('côté');
Two examples of sorts with two differents locales: French and German
select * from t1 order by c1 collate "de_DE"; c1 ------ cote coté côte côté select * from t1 order by c1 collate "fr_FR"; c1 ------ cote côte coté côté
Look a sort order, in French language sorting is done on the last accent which is not the case of German.
By default, Postgres uses environment collation. It is possible to specify the collation at the creation of the instance, creation of a base, a table … Even at column level.
There is also a particular collation “C” where postgres performs sorting according to the encoding order of the characters.
pg_collation table in the system catalog lists collations. The
collprovider column indicates the source:
-[ RECORD 1 ]-+----------------------- collname | en-US-x-icu collnamespace | 11 collowner | 10 collprovider | i collencoding | -1 collcollate | en-US collctype | en-US collversion | 153.64 -[ RECORD 4 ]-+----------------------- collname | en_US collnamespace | 11 collowner | 10 collprovider | c collencoding | 6 collcollate | en_US.utf8 collctype | en_US.utf8 collversion |
Postgres relies on operating system libraries to perform sort operations. Under linux, it is based on the famous libc.
The major benefit of relying on this library is not having to rewrite and maintain a whole set of sorting rules.
However, this approach may have a disadvantage:
We must “trust” this library. Within the same distribution (and even release), the libc will always return the same results. Things can get complicated if you have to compare results from different libs. For example, using a different distribution or a different release. This is why it is not recommended to put servers in streaming replication with different distributions: indexes may not be consistent. Cf: The dangers of streaming across versions of glibc: A cautionary tale
ICU collations are richer. It is possible to change sort ordering. For example, uppercase before the lowercase: Setting Options. Peter Geoghegan gave some examples on the mailing list postgresql-hackers: What users can do with custom ICU collations in Postgres 10
History of abbreviated keys in PostgreSQL
Back to the past :) Version 9.5 improved sorting algorithm with abbreviated keys. The announced gains were really important, here between 40 and 70%: Use abbreviated keys for faster sorting of text datums
In summary, the abbreviated keys allow to better exploit processor cache. Peter Geoghegan, who is the author of the patch, provides an explanation on his blog: Abbreviated keys: exploiting locality to improve PostgreSQL’s text sort performance
Unfortunately this feature has been disabled in version 9.5.2: Disable abbreviated keys for string-sorting in non-C locales
The reason? A bug in some version of the libc! This bug caused a corruption of the index: Abbreviated keys glibc issue
What is the link with ICU collations? It’s quite simple, with a ICU collation postgres no longer relies on the libc. It is therefore possible to use Abbreviated keys.
We check it in the code:
src/backend/utils/adt/varlena.c 1876 /* 1877 * Unfortunately, it seems that abbreviation for non-C collations is 1878 * broken on many common platforms; testing of multiple versions of glibc 1879 * reveals that, for many locales, strcoll() and strxfrm() do not return 1880 * consistent results, which is fatal to this optimization. While no 1881 * other libc other than Cygwin has so far been shown to have a problem, 1882 * we take the conservative course of action for right now and disable 1883 * this categorically. (Users who are certain this isn't a problem on 1884 * their system can define TRUST_STRXFRM.) 1885 * 1886 * Even apart from the risk of broken locales, it's possible that there 1887 * are platforms where the use of abbreviated keys should be disabled at 1888 * compile time. Having only 4 byte datums could make worst-case 1889 * performance drastically more likely, for example. Moreover, macOS's 1890 * strxfrm() implementation is known to not effectively concentrate a 1891 * significant amount of entropy from the original string in earlier 1892 * transformed blobs. It's possible that other supported platforms are 1893 * similarly encumbered. So, if we ever get past disabling this 1894 * categorically, we may still want or need to disable it for particular 1895 * platforms. 1896 */ 1897 #ifndef TRUST_STRXFRM 1898 if (!collate_c && !(locale && locale->provider == COLLPROVIDER_ICU)) 1899 abbreviate = false; 1900 #endif
When I prepared my presentation on the Full Text Search in Postgres, I wanted to work on a “real” data set: the stackoverflow database
Here are the results of creating 3 indexes on the “title” column of the posts table (38GB):
- Ignore collation:
- One using the en_US collation of the libc:
- Another one using the en_US collation of ICU library
I activate some options to have the execution time of the query and information about sorting:
\timing set client_min_messages TO log; set trace_sort to on;
create index idx1 on posts (title collate "C"); LOG: begin index sort: unique = f, workMem = 6291456, randomAccess = f LOG: varstr_abbrev: abbrev_distinct after 160: 56.532166 (key_distinct: 59.707363, norm_abbrev_card: 0.353326, prop_card: 0.200000) LOG: varstr_abbrev: abbrev_distinct after 321: 110.782140 (key_distinct: 121.985752, norm_abbrev_card: 0.345116, prop_card: 0.200000) [...] LOG: varstr_abbrev: abbrev_distinct after 10485760: 523091.461475 (key_distinct: 4215367.096361, norm_abbrev_card: 0.049886, prop_card: 0.002693) LOG: varstr_abbrev: abbrev_distinct after 20971522: 852125.989455 (key_distinct: 8800364.815018, norm_abbrev_card: 0.040633, prop_card: 0.001750) LOG: performsort starting: CPU: user: 21.88 s, system: 17.27 s, elapsed: 104.98 s LOG: performsort done: CPU: user: 43.55 s, system: 17.27 s, elapsed: 126.65 s LOG: internal sort ended, 3519559 KB used: CPU: user: 48.14 s, system: 18.40 s, elapsed: 142.19 s CREATE INDEX Time: 142380.670 ms (02:22.381)
Here, postgres exploits abbreviated keys because there are no collation rules. It just has to sort according to the character encoding. Sorting does not take into account collation rules.
create index idx2 on posts (title collate "en_US"); LOG: begin index sort: unique = f, workMem = 6291456, randomAccess = f LOG: performsort starting: CPU: user: 20.10 s, system: 17.32 s, elapsed: 104.80 s LOG: performsort done: CPU: user: 137.52 s, system: 17.32 s, elapsed: 222.25 s LOG: internal sort ended, 3519559 KB used: CPU: user: 142.41 s, system: 18.10 s, elapsed: 237.97 s CREATE INDEX Time: 238159.675 ms (03:58.160)
Postgres uses libc, so it can not exploit abbreviated keys.
create index idx3 on posts (title collate "en-US-x-icu"); LOG: begin index sort: unique = f, workMem = 6291456, randomAccess = f LOG: varstr_abbrev: abbrev_distinct after 160: 55.475952 (key_distinct: 59.707363, norm_abbrev_card: 0.346725, prop_card: 0.200000) LOG: varstr_abbrev: abbrev_distinct after 321: 110.782140 (key_distinct: 121.985752, norm_abbrev_card: 0.345116, prop_card: 0.200000) [...] LOG: varstr_abbrev: abbrev_distinct after 10485760: 337228.120654 (key_distinct: 4215367.096361, norm_abbrev_card: 0.032161, prop_card: 0.002693) LOG: varstr_abbrev: abbrev_distinct after 20971522: 521498.943210 (key_distinct: 8800364.815018, norm_abbrev_card: 0.024867, prop_card: 0.001750) LOG: performsort starting: CPU: user: 30.22 s, system: 16.78 s, elapsed: 105.65 s LOG: performsort done: CPU: user: 66.86 s, system: 16.78 s, elapsed: 142.31 s LOG: internal sort ended, 3519559 KB used: CPU: user: 71.23 s, system: 18.04 s, elapsed: 157.79 s CREATE INDEX Time: 157979.957 ms (02:37.980)
Postgres uses the ICU library, it can operate abbreviated keys. The gain is of the order of 34%. Unlike the first example, sorting takes into account the en_US collation rules.
Note: If you did not have system collations (during the initdb), you can import the new collations with the
pg_import_system_collations function. For example:
select pg_import_system_collations('pg_catalog'); pg_import_system_collations ----------------------------- 6